100% Job Guaranteed CCNA Interview Questions with Answers

“100% Job Guaranteed CCNA Interview Questions with Answers”

Q.1: What is Routing?
Ans: Routing is the process of finding a path on which data can pass from source to destination. Routing is done by a device called routers, which are network layer devices.

Q.2: What is the purpose of the Data Link?
Ans: The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing.

Q.3: What is the key advantage of using switches?
Ans: When a switch receives a signal, it creates a frame out of the bits that was extracted from that signal. With this process, it gains access and reads the destination address, after which it forwards that frame to the appropriate port. This is a very efficient means of data transmission, instead of broadcasting it on all ports.

Q.4: When does network congestion occur?
Ans: Network congestion occurs when too many users are trying to use the same bandwidth. This is especially true in big networks that do not resort to network segmentation.

Q.5: What is a Window in networking terms?
Ans: A Window refers to the number of segments that is allowed to be sent from source to destination before an acknowledgement is sent back.

Q.6: Does a bridge divide a network into smaller segments?
Ans: Not really. What a bridge actually does is to take the large network and filter it, without changing the size of the network.

Q.7: Which LAN switching method is used in CISCO Catalyst 5000?
Ans: This model uses the Store-and-forward switching method. It stores the entire frame to its buffers and performs a crc check before deciding whether or not to forward that data frame.

Q.8: What is the role of the LLC sublayer?
Ans: The LLC sublayer, short for Logical Link Control, can provide optional services to an application developer. One option is to provide flow control to the Network layer by using stop/start codes. The LLC can also provide error correction.

Q.9: How does RIP differ from IGRP?
Ans: RIP relies on the number of hops in order to determine the best route to a network. On the other hand, IGRP takes consideration many factors before it decides the best route to take, such as bandwidth, reliability, MTU and hop count.

Q.10: What are the different memories used in a CISCO router?
Ans: – NVRAM stores the startup configuration file
– DRAM stores the configuration file that is being executed
– Flash Memory – stores the Cisco IOS.

Q.11: What is BootP?
Ans: BootP is a protocol that is used to boot diskless workstations that are connected to the network. It is short for Boot Program. Diskless workstations also use BootP in order to determine its own IP address as well as the IP address of the server PC.

Q.12: What is the function of the Application Layer in networking?
Ans: Application Layer supports the communication components of an application and provides network services to application processes that span beyond the OSI reference model specifications. It also synchronizes applications on the server and client.

Q.13: Differentiate User Mode from Privileged Mode
Ans: User Mode is used for regular task when using a CISCO router, such as to view system information, connecting to remote devices, and checking the status of the router. On the other hand, privileged mode includes all options that are available for User Mode, plus more. You can use this mode in order to make configurations on the router, including making tests and debugging.

Q.14: What is 100BaseFX?
Ans: This is Ethernet that makes use of fiber optic cable as the main transmission medium. The 100 stands for 100Mbps, which is the data speed.

Q.15: Differentiate full-duplex from half-duplex.
Ans: In full-duplex, both the transmitting device and the receiving device can communicate simultaneously, that is, both can be transmitting and receiving at the same time. In the case of half-duplex, a device cannot receive while it is transmitting, and vice versa.

Q.16: What is MTU?
Ans: MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. It refers to the maximum packet size that can be sent out onto the data line without the need to fragment it.

Q.17: How does cut-through LAN switching work?
Ans: In Cut-Through LAN switching, as soon as the router receives the data frame, it will immediately send it out again and forward it to the next network segment after reading the destination address.

Q.18: What is latency?
Ans: Latency is the amount of time delay that measures the point from which a network device receives a data frame to the time it sends it out again towards another network segment.

Q.19: Utilizing RIP, what is the limit when it comes to number of hops?
Ans: The maximum limit is 15 hop counts. Anything higher than 15 indicates that the network is considered unreachable.

Q.20: What is a Frame Relay?
Ans: Frame Relay is a WAN protocol that provides connection-oriented communication by creating and maintaining virtual circuits. It has a high performance rating and operates at the Data Link and Physical Layers.

Q.21: How do you configure a Cisco router to route IPX?
Ans: The initial thing to do is to enable IPX routing by using the “ipx routing” command. Each interface that is used in the IPX network is then configured with a network number and encapsulation method.

Q.22: What are the different IPX access lists?
Ans: There are two access lists: Standard and Extended. Standard Access List can only filter the source or destination IP address. An Extended Access List uses the source and destination IP addresses, port, socket and protocol when filtering a network.

Q.23: Explain the benefits of VLANs.
Ans: VLANs allow the creation of collision domains by groups other than just physical location. Using VLANs, it is possible to establish networks by different means, such as by function, type of hardware, protocol, among others. This is a big advantage when compared to conventional LANs wherein collision domains are always tied to physical location.

Q.24: What is subnetting?
Ans: Subnetting is the process of creating smaller networks from a big parent network. Being a part of a network, each subnet is assigned some additional parameters or identifier to indicate its subnet number.

Q.25) What are the advantages of a layered model in the networking industry?
Ans: A layered network offers many advantages. It allows administrators to make changes in one layer without the need to make changes in the other layers. Specialization is encouraged, allowing the network industry to make progress faster. A layered model also lets administrators troubleshoot problems more efficiently.

Q.26: Why is UDP lease favored when compared to TCP?
Ans: It’s because UDP is unreliable and unsequenced. It is not capable of establishing virtual circuits and acknowledgements.

Q.27: What are some standards supported by the Presentation layer?
Ans: Presentation layer supports many standards, which ensures that data is presented correctly. These include PICT, TIFF and JPEG for graphics, MIDI, MPEG and QuickTime for Video/Audio.

Q.28: What’s the simplest way to remotely configure a router?
Ans: In cases when you need to configure a router remotely, the most convenient is to use the Cisco Auto Install Procedure. However, the router must be connected to the WAN or LAN through one of the interfaces.

Q.29: What does the show protocol display?
Ans:
– routed protocols that is configured on the router
– the address assigned on each interface
– the encapsulation method that was configured on each interface

Q.30: How do you depict an IP address?
Ans: It can be done in three possible ways:
– using Dotted-decimal. For example: 192.168.0.1
– using Binary. For example: 10000010.00111011.01110010.01110011
– using Hexadecimal. For example: 82 1E 10 A1

Q.31: How do you go to privileged mode? How do you switch back to user mode?
Ans: To access privileged mode, you enter the command “enable” on the prompt. In order to get back to user mode, enter the command “disable”

Q.32: What is HDLC?
Ans: HDLC is short for High Level Data Link Control protocol, and is a propriety protocol of CISCO. It is the default encapsulation operated within CISCO routers.

Q.33: How are internetworks created?
Ans: Internetworks are created when networks are connected using routers. Specifically, the network administrator assigns a logical address to every network that connects to the router.

Q.34: What is Bandwidth?
Ans: Bandwidth refers to the transmission capacity of a medium. It is a measure of how much volume a transmission channel can handle, and is measured in Kbps.

Q.35: How does Hold-downs work?
Ans: Hold-downs prevent regular update messages from reinstating a downed link by removing that link from update messages. It uses triggered updates to reset the hold-down timer.

Q.36: What are packets?
Ans: Packets are the results of data encapsulation. These are data that has been wrapped under the different protocols of the OSI layers. Packets are also referred to as datagrams.

Q.37: What are segments?
Ans: Segments are sections of a data stream that comes from the upper OSI layers and ready for transmission towards the network. Segments are the logic units at the Transport Layer.

Q.38: Give some benefits of LAN switching.
Ans:
– allows full duplex data transmission and reception
– media rate adaption
– easy and efficient migration

Q.39: What is Route Poisoning?
Ans: Route Poisoning is the process of inserting a table entry of 16 to a route, making it unreachable. This technique is used in order to prevent problems caused by inconsistent updates on a route.

Q.40: How do you find valid hosts in a subnet?
Ans: The best way to go about this is to use the equation 256 minus the subnet mask. The hosts that are considered valid are those that can be found between the subnets.

Q.41: What is DLCI?
Ans: DLCI, or Data Link Connection Identifiers, are normally assigned by a frame relay service provider in order to uniquely identify each virtual circuit that exists on the network.

Q.42: Brielfly explain the conversion steps in data encapsulation.
Ans: From a data transmitter’s point of reference, data from the end user is converted to segments. Segments are then passed on to the other layers and converted into packets or datagrams. These packets are then converted into frames before passing on to the network interface. Finally, frames are converted to bits prior to actual data transmission.

Q.43: What are the different types of passwords used in securing a CISCO router?
Ans: There are actually five types of passwords that can be used. These are enable secret, enable, virtual terminal, console, and auxiliary.

Q.44: Why is network segmentation a good idea when managing a large network?
Ans: For a network administration, segmenting a network would help ease network traffic and ensures that high bandwidth is made available at all times for all users. This translates to better performance especially for a growing network.

Q.45: What causes a triggered update to reset the router hold-down timer?
Ans: This may happen when the hold-down timer has already expired, or when the router received a processing task that incidentally was proportional to the number of links in the internetwork.

Interview Questions with Answers for CCNA Level Jobs

Interview Questions with Answers for CCNA Level Jobs

Q. What is a router?
A. A router is a device that connects more than one physical network, or segments of a network, using IP routing software. As packets reach the router, the router reads them and forwards them to their destination.

Q. Discuss wireless networking.
A. This is a network configured to use communication techniques such as infrared, cellular, or microwave, so that cable connections are not required.

Q. Discuss WAN (wide area network).
A. A WAN is extended over longer distances that a LAN (local area network). It can range from a few miles to across the world. TCP/IP is the primary WAN protocol and was developed to provide reliable, secure data transmissions over long distances.

Q. What is OSPF?
A. Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol that supports the concept of a core area to which everything attaches.

Q. What is BGP?
A. Border Gateway Protocol is used for routing between networks on the Internet core, and it supports many advanced routing features.

Q. What is an autonomous system?
A. An autonomous system is a community of interest. Used in conjunction with routing protocols, it breaks up parts of the network into manageable chunks.

Q. What is dial on demand?
A. Dial on demand is a technology that only activates network connection when “interesting” packets are to be sent across the infrastructure.

Q. What mask would you use to supernet two class C addresses?
A. The subnet would be 255.255.254.0.

Q. What is VLANing?
A. Virtual LAN is used on large LANs to break up the network into smaller broadcast domains. This creates communities of interest. These communities can be based around organizational structures.

Q. What is CIDR?
A. Classless Internet domain routing is used in conjunction with classless routing protocols to summarize the Internet into smaller routing tables.

Q. What is VLSM?
A. Variable Length Subnet Mask is used to allocate the amount of address space required by the end network.

Q. What is a class D IP address?
A. Class D addresses are multicast addresses.

Q. What addresses do multicasts start with?
A. Multicasts start with the address 224.0.0.0.

Q. Which name resolution system is implemented with TCP/IP by default?
A. Although WINS is a name resolution that is implemented by TCP/IP by default, it only works on Windows-based networks. The only true name resolution system that almost every TCP/IP networks uses is DNS.

Q. You are the administrator of a 100-station Ethernet network. Your users are complaining of slow network speeds. What could you replace your hub with to increase your network throughput?
A. A switch would increase performance by making virtual, direct connections between sender and receiver. A bridge and router would actually decrease performance because these devices introduce latency into the communication.

Q. Which TCP/IP utility is most often used to test whether an IP host is up and functional?
A. The Ping utility is the most often used TCP/IP utility because it allows you to test individual hosts.

Q. Which utility can you use to find the MAC and TCP/IP address of your Windows NT or 2000 workstation?
A. The ipconfig utility is available for both these operating systems. It displays information like the MAC and TCP/IP address of your workstation as well as other TCP/IP configuration information.

Q. Which utility can you use to verify a packet’s path?
A. The tracert utility traces the route from the source IP host to the destination host.

Q. Which WAN technology uses digital signaling from sender to receiver?
A. The T-series of WAN connection (such as T1, T3, and so on) uses digital signaling from sending hardware to receiving hardware.

Q. Which remote access protocol can run over both serial and parallel connections?
A. Because PPP doesn’t contain a physical layer specification as part of the protocol, it can run over any kind of medium.

Q. What Microsoft TCP/IP protocol can be used over the Internet to create a secure, virtual network?
A. The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) allows you to create a secure, virtual connection between two points by tunneling one protocol inside another. Usually, a PPP connection is opened over a TCP/IP link.

Q. Which type of firewall checks for a current communication and the next packet needed?
A. A proxy provides firewall services by keeping track of all communications sessions and “prefetching” the next packets.

Q. Which type of security uses a file that identifies predefined IP addresses that are allowed to send data through a router?
A. Access Control List security uses a file (the ACL) that identifies which addresses can send data through a particular firewall or router.

Reset ECB-3220

How do I reset my ECB-3220 to the factory defaults :

  1. plug in the power.
  2. wait for 30 seconds (for the device to load Linux).
  3. push in the reset button and hold for 10 seconds.
  4. The unit will default to the bridge mode and ip address of 192.168.1.1
  5. you may have to repeat this process several times.
  6. If you can not access the 192.168.1.1 address after several resets try pinging the broadcast address of 192.168.1.255 you should get a reply from the actual ip.

What is the default ip address of my ECB-3220 :

  • The default ip address in bridge mode is 192.168.1.1 and in ap mode 192.168.1.2  
  • If you do a hard reset it will default back to bridge mode and 192.168.1.1

Coba Aplikasi QXDM dan QPST

Habis ngoprek modem CDMA saya yang berchipset qualcomm ternyata kita bisa analisis sinyal kita dengan menggunakan software QXDM (Qualcomm Extensible Diagnostic Monitor) yang dipadukan dengan QPST (Qualcomm Products Support Tools). Ingat ini software ini berfungsi jika perangkat anda berchipset QUALCOMM bukan yang lain.

Begini caranya :

      • Install software QPST  (Qualcomm Products Support Tools) dahulu, setelah itu  install softwre QXDM (Qualcomm Extensible Diagnostic Monitor), lebih baik disconnect dahulu modem anda dan tutup software modem anda agar port tidak crash dengan software QXDM  (Qualcomm Extensible Diagnostic Monitor)


    • Kemudian buka Device Manager di komputer anda, lihat port “3G Wireless – Diagnostics Interface” pada PORT berapa?

    • Kemudian buka QPST Configuration, lalu pilih tab “Port” kemudian klik “Add New Port…” .

    • Kemudian pilih port yang sudah dicek pada no.3, jika port anda tidak muncul hilangkan saja centang pada “Show Serial and USB/QC Diagnostics port only”. Jika sudah pilih port lalu klik OK.


    • Maka pada tab port yang tadinya kosong akan terisi dengan pilihan anda pada no.5

    • Kemudian buka software QXDM Professional, pilih Options > Communications.., Pada bagian communication pilih “Target Port” yang sudah di set di QPST Configuration lalu klik OK.


    • Jika sudah konfigurasi port maka tinggal kita lihat analisis untuk melihat BTS yang kita gunakan sekarang dengan cara pilih menu View > New > CDMA 1xEV > HDR Pilot Sets, nanti akan muncul jendela HDR Pilot Sets dari modem kita

    • Kemudian jika ingin melihat menu lainnya yang juga berguna pilih menu View > New > CDMA 1xEV > CDMA 1xEV Rev. A > HDR Rev. A DRC-DSC-ARQ Buffer Metrics, nanti akan muncul jendela  HDR Rev. A DRC-DSC-ARQ Buffer Metric dari modem kita

Keterangan :

  • -100dB = Sinyal sangat buruk
  • -70 dB = Sinyal cukup bagus
  • -40 dB= Sinyal sangat bagus

Kentang Lagi ke 3

Liburan dirumah maen ke ruangan server sama bapak saya, dan ngoprek mesin komputer server SPARC dengan sistem operasi SOLARIS 8. Wuih adem ruangannya. bbrrrr. 😀 pulang terus jalan-jalan sama adek saya dan bapak saya ke Bekasi Cyber Park Mall buat nyari makan. Si ibu dirumah soalnya ada kakak bapak sama istrinya mau maen ke rumah jadi ga bisa ikut jalan-jalan. Ini sih juga bukan buat jalan-jalan intinya tuh lagi benerin jaringan pakai mesin server SPARC, jadi aja si ibu ga bisa ikut yang bisa ikut cuma si adek.

Lagi-lagi gue dikerjain sama makanan yang namanya kentang. Entah kenapa pacar saya pasti ketawa kalau saya ngomong kentang. ^^v karena punya cerita khusus waktu di McD Bandung dan KFC Bandung.

Begini ceritanya :

Saya : “mbak ini udah dapet french fries belum?”

Si Pelayan : “belum mas”

Saya : “ya udah, pesen satu french fries yang medium”

Si Pelayan : “baik nanti diantar ke meja ya mas”

Saya : “ok”

udah tuh dianterin ke meja, disana udah ada adik saya dan bapak saya. Pas mau makan saya ngobrol sama adik kurang lebih begini :

Adik : “mas bukannya dirumah ada kentang yah?”

Saya : “wee..biarin biar enak makannya”

langsung makan dan menghabiskan makanan yang ada disitu semuanya, terus ngobrol-ngobrol terus saya beli modem CDMA EVDO Rev.A terus pulang deh. Habis pulang si bapak dan si ibu langsung siap-siap buat kondangan ke tetangga soalnya anaknya ada yang hajatan nikah. Gue langsung ngoprek modem CDMA EVDO Rev.A nya di komputer deh. 😀

Entah kenapa waktu percakapan saya dan adik sedang ngobrol lalu saya ceritakan ke pacar saya, dan ternyata apa?  dia tertawa terbahak-bahak. Beuh malunya daku sudah dipermalukan oleh makanan kentang 3x. Tapi tidak apa-apa sih soalnya buat lucu-lucuan juga buat saya dan pacar saya. Hehehe. :p

Paket smartfren mulai 1 Mei 2011

Saya lagi mencoba paket smartfren yang baru, tampaknya persaingan data di CDMA sudah mulai bangkit. Biasanya persaingan ketat di GSM khususnya data yang menawarkan segala macam fasilitas. Tapi sekarang saya mencoba layanan EVDO rev A dari operator smartfren yang baru mulai tanggal 1 Mei 2011. Coba kita lihat lebih jelas gambar dibawah ini :

Saya mencoba paket EVDO menggunakan modem Venus Fast2 yang menawarkan dual band 900/1800Mhz, jadi bisa untuk semua operator CDMA seperti SMART, AHA, Flexi, Fren, Starone, Esia.

Three MU 150MB

Setelah melihat iklan operator three yang 150MB jadi pengen nyobain tuh paket lumayan irit cuman Rp12.000 tapi kalau dihitung dari semua paket yang paket ini paling mahal kalau menurut gue nih. Soalnya kita lihat perbandingan sama paket yang lainnya ya.

  • Paket 150MB = Rp. 12.000+ppn 10% = Rp. 13.200 (Berarti 1MB = Rp. 88)
  • Paket 500MB = Rp. 35.000 (Berarti 1MB = Rp. 70)
  • Paket 1GB/1024MB = Rp. 50.000 (Berarti 1MB = Rp. 49)
  • Paket 2GB/2048MB = Rp. 75.000 (Berarti 1MB = Rp. 37)
  • Paket 5GB/5120MB = Rp. 125.000 (Berarti 1MB = Rp. 25)

Terbukti kan perhitungan saya kelihatannya murah tapi kalau dihitung per-MB yang jatuhnya lebih mahal dari paket yang lain. Khusus paket yang 150MB cuman ada di kartu Tri edisi MU soalnya dia pakai Access Point sendiri yaitu “3ad”. Nih contoh screenshoot saya menggunakan Tri edisi MU ambil paket 150MB ternyata dia pakai proxy khusus 3ad

kalau diliat dari linknya sih IP private proxy 3ad tuh 10.70.4.18. Mungkin web ini buat khusus promosi tri saja. 😀